• Glossary

    Academic year: The academic year runs July 1 through June 30. For example, the 2013-14 academic year is July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014.

    Affirmative action (AA): Affirmative action is a program or policy that an organization uses to promote the employment opportunities of traditionally disadvantaged portions of the population.

    Dislocated alumni: These are alumni who are out of work.

    Benchmarking: Benchmarking is a process of comparing one organization’s services, processes, or practices against those of other organizations to find identify the current standard or practice.

    Career Coaching: Career coaching focuses on solutions, insight, and action. It is a positive approach that focuses on a client’s capabilities, helping him or her to practice and hone skills needed in the job search. Coaching is active, focused, positive, and outcome-oriented.

    College Scorecard: The College Scorecard (http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/education/higher-education/college-score-card) is intended to provide potential students and their parents with a clear way to judge the potential costs and likely benefits of attending one school as opposed to another, and make schools more focused on the end result, particularly the employment outcomes, of their programs. The scorecard has five components: 1) average net price for a student to attend an institution, 2) graduation rate from that institution, 3) loan default rate, 4) median borrowing amount, and 5) student outcomes after receiving a bachelor's degree.

    Competence/competencies: Competence is the ability of an individual to do a job properly. Competencies should be thought of as a set of defined attributes, the mastery of which allows an individual to retain a position or earn a promotion. Therefore, competencies provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation, and development of the behaviors in individual employees.

    Cooperative education: Cooperative education (co-op) provides students with multiple periods of work in which the work is related to the student’s major or career goal. The typical program plan is for students to alternate terms of full-time classroom study with terms of full-time, discipline-related employment. Since program participation involves multiple work terms, the typical participant will work three or four work terms, thus gaining a year or more of career-related work experience before graduation. Virtually all co-op positions are paid and the vast majority involves some form of academic credit.

    Cost-per-hire: The average cost of filling a vacancy, including advertising, job and career fairs, on-campus activities, interviewing, reference checks, and signing bonuses.

    Cycle time—Cycle time is a measured amount of time between interview and offer and/or hire dates.

    Employer branding: Employer branding is a type of marketing used by an organization to give it greater visibility. It is often associated with an organization's reputation as an employer.

    Entry-level job: An entry-level job is one that is appropriate for someone who is inexperienced. Many new college graduates enter the workplace through entry-level jobs. The entry-level job may include on the job training, and can lead to higher level positions.

    Experiential learning: Experiential learning is an umbrella term for student work and observation experiences: Internships, co-ops, externships, and practicums are all types of experiential learning.

    Externship: An externship or job shadowing experience allows a student to spend between a day and several weeks observing a professional on the job.

    FERPA: The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA) ensures that students and parents of students may obtain access to the student’s educational records and challenge the content or release of such records to third parties.

    First-Destination Survey: This is a survey that assesses the initial career and employment outcomes for a class of graduates.

    I-9: This is a federal form that documents the identity and employment authorization of any employee (citizen and noncitizen).

    FTE hire: Full-time equivalent (FTE) hire.

    GPA: Grade point average.

    Graduating class: NACE defines graduating class as those who graduate from July 1 through June 30. For example, the Class of 2014 includes those who graduated from July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2014.

    Graduation rate: The graduation rate is the percentage of full-time students who enrolled in an institution as freshmen and completed their requirements for the bachelor’s degree within a period of six years. (The graduation rate excludes students who have transferred to other schools.)

    Internship: Internships are typically one-time work or service experiences related to the student’s major or career goal. The internship plan generally involves students working in professional settings under the supervision and monitoring of practicing professionals. Internships can be paid or unpaid and the student may or may not receive academic credit for performing the internship. (Note: The issue of pay is dictated by the Fair Labor Standards Act.)

    MOOCs: Free online courses offered by a wide range of colleges and universities are called "massive open online courses" (MOOCs). MOOCs are voluntary, so there is no penalty for dropping a program, but there is no corresponding diploma for completion.

    NAICS: The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the "standard used by federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. business economy." It is part of the United State Census Bureau under the U.S. Department of Commerce.

    New graduate: A new graduate is a person who has obtained their degree during the most recent academic year.

    New hire: Someone entering an entry-level (requires no previous experience) professional position.

    Onboarding: This is the process for bringing new hires into an organization; onboarding may include orientation, tours, networking with other employees, rotational training, and other programs.

    Practicum: A practicum is generally a one-time work or service experience done by a student as part of an academic class. Some practicums offer pay, but many don't. Almost all are done for academic credit.

    Primarily Centralized: In this structure, the institution has a single career services office or has multiples offices that report to a main career services office.

    Primarily Decentralized: In this structure, the institution has multiple career services offices that, in general, operate independently of each other and report to different entities.

    Rotational program: The goal of rotational programs is to provide a new hire with a broad perspective of the organization by exposing them to a variety of departments and jobs, allowing them a wider exposure to and appreciation for the work of the organization.

    Student employment: Part time/seasonal jobs on or off campus

    SWOT analysis: As part of strategic planning, an organization will gather information to assess its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    University relations and recruiting (URR): The university relations and recruiting function focuses on building and maintaining relationships with colleges and universities and sourcing, selecting, assessing, recruiting, interviewing, and hiring new college graduates for the organization’s work force.

    U.S. Visa: This is a formal endorsement by the federal government that the bearer has the legal right to be in the United States for a specified period of time for a specific purpose. The following visa categories are those most often used for students and employees:

    • F-1: This visa enables the student to study full time at a college, university, or other academic institution.
    • M-1: This visa is for students attending a vocational or other nonacademic institution.
    • H-1B: This is for workers in a specialty occupation.
    • H-1C: This visa is for registered nurses working in health profession shortage areas.